Neuropathologist arranging slices of a human brain for gross pathology. By studying the shape and structure of a brain, most brain disorders can be diagnosed. For instance, Alzheimer’s disease causes shrinkage and the fissures appear to grow. A stroke causes localized brain tissue death, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease gives the brain a spongy appearance with evident holes. This type of pathology is carried out not only to try to find causes of death, but also in research into all brain disorders.
A brain after suffering the effects of Alzheimers
Glucose powered fuel cell could use your blood for energy.
A team at MIT have developed a tiny fuel cell able to use glucose to generate electric current, which could enable implants that use the sugar from your blood for power.
The glucose-based fuel cell is fabricated on a silicon wafer, much in the same way that semiconductor chips are made, but uses a biocompatible platinum catalyst to strip electrons from glucose molecules to generate an electric current of up to 100 microwatts, which is enough power to drive a neural implant.
According to researchers, the glucose-based fuel cell will most likely first appear in the brain. They think that the cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) that bathes and protects the brain contains enough glucose to power the fuel cell without affecting the brain. Also, the CSF is a good location because it contains very few cells, which greatly reduces the chance of an immune response. If a brain implant’s electronics are low enough in power, the implant could theoretically be completely self-powered and not require battery replacements, a common problem with electronic implants today.
3D image depicting the location of the thalamus in the brain (click on the image to see it rotate)
The function of the thalamus includes relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex,along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Intraventricular hemorrhage with subarachnoid extension, ventral surface of brain.
Ventricular blood emanating through foramina of Lushcke and Magendie to cover the posterior cerebellum at the base of the brain. As described initially by Thomas Willis (of circle of Willis fame), intraventricular hemorrhage is often first encountered by the pathologist as grummous blood encircling the base of the brain.
The four lobes of the cerebral cortex
1. Frontal lobe - conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes;
2. Parietal lobe - plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; portions of the parietal lobe are involved in visuospatial processing.
3. Occipital lobe - sense of sight; lesions can produce hallucinations.
4. Temporal lobe - senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes.
The insula is a portion of cortex in between and covered by the temporal and parietal lobes. Some consider it as a separate lobe, but others as a part of the limbic structure deep in the brain.
Anonymous asked: What do your other personalities think of the Joker? Would you know? They definitely weren't around when you were treating him, but they have the same knowledge of him as you and all, right?
I…don’t know. I don’t know what they see. What they do. How they even feel. Harley wasn’t as fully realized as she is now, neither was the third,...
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